Babies & newborns COVID-19 (coronavirus) Featured

Pregnancy, fertility and the COVID-19 vaccine: Sunnybrook experts answer your questions

Dr. Dixon and Dr. Ladhani

We asked our followers on Instagram to send their questions about the COVID-19 vaccine and fertility, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Two experts from our DAN Women & Babies Program have responded: Dr. Noor Ladhani, high-risk obstetrician, weighed in on receiving the vaccine during pregnancy and after having a baby, and Dr. Marjorie Dixon, fertility specialist, answered questions about trying to conceive during the pandemic.

Pre-pregnancy / Trying to conceive

Will the vaccine impact my fertility?

Dr. Dixon: The information we know is very reassuring. There is no evidence that any of the vaccines affect fertility. I encourage everyone to get their COVID-19 vaccine when they’re eligible. This includes if you’re actively trying to have a baby or even just thinking about having a baby in the future.

I am 39 and am trying to conceive. Will the vaccination decrease my chances?

Dr. Dixon: I’ve been assuring my patients, regardless of their age, that there’s no evidence the vaccine leads to loss of fertility. While fertility was not specifically studied in the clinical trials of the vaccine, no loss of fertility has been reported among trial participants who have received the vaccines since their rollout.

Is it safe to conceive while awaiting the second dose?

Dr. Dixon: It is safe if you become pregnant at any point around your vaccine doses: immediately before or after your first dose, between your first and second doses, or immediately after your second dose. I advise my patients to get vaccinated as soon as they are eligible to ensure they do not become seriously ill from COVID-19.

Timing of vaccination during pregnancy

Is there an ideal time during pregnancy to get vaccinated? First or second or third trimester?

Dr. Ladhani: The best time to get vaccinated is when you become eligible. We know that COVID-19 in pregnancy can increase your risk of being hospitalized and also cause an increased risk of preterm delivery. Statistics suggest between eight and 11 per cent of people who are pregnant who contract COVID-19 will be admitted to hospital, and between two and four per cent will need intensive care. That’s compared to about eight per cent of all COVID-19 patients who have needed hospitalization and about 1.5 per cent who needed intensive care, so pregnancy puts you at higher risk than the general population. A recent study in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology found those who were pregnant had a strong immune response after vaccination, suggesting strong protection. The study also showed that COVID-19 antibodies were transferred to babies, and we are going to see the effects of this soon. 

I’m in my third trimester. Should I get the vaccine while pregnant or when the baby is born?

Dr. Ladhani: I would advise receiving the vaccine as soon as you can. You’ll be protecting yourself, as well as your baby, once your immune response begins to kick in (usually two weeks after vaccination). Please be sure to receive your second dose at the scheduled time. The antibodies you produce will be passed on to your baby through the umbilical cord and in the breast milk.

Pregnant and patiently waiting. Is it ever too close to the due date to get the vaccine?

Dr. Ladhani: Close to your due date is absolutely fine. You’ll be protecting two people – yourself and your baby – it’s a win-win situation.

Pregnancy & the COVID-19 vaccine

Can antibodies be passed to baby if vaccinated during pregnancy?

Dr. Ladhani: A recent study showed there was immunity transferred to babies via placenta and breast milk. This evidence points to the strength of vaccination, at any stage of pregnancy, and also for those who have delivered their baby and are breastfeeding.

What effects will the vaccine have on my baby?

Dr. Ladhani: The COVID-19 vaccines available for people who are pregnant don’t contain any live virus and do not put you at increased risk for pregnancy loss or harm to your baby. They will not give you or the baby COVID-19, and will not interact with yours or the baby’s DNA. You may develop a fever after you get the vaccine, but this will not harm the baby.

Does vaccination during pregnancy mount less of an immune response compared to non-pregnant?

Dr. Ladhani: In a recent study, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines generated strong immunity in pregnant and breastfeeding people. The immune response was the same as that observed in non-pregnant individuals. Immune responses from being vaccinated were significantly greater than if you had been infected with COVID-19.

Could post-vaccine symptoms be heightened due to pregnancy?

Dr. Ladhani: There’s no indication that if you’re pregnant you will have more severe post-vaccine symptoms. The vaccine can cause fever in some people (around 16 per cent of those vaccinated) and usually takes places following the second dose. The evidence shows there is minimal risk to your or your baby. A few hours after receiving the vaccine, if you have a fever, you can treat it with acetaminophen/Tylenol.

How do we know the vaccine is safe during pregnancy if trials have just started for that group?

Dr. Ladhani: Early clinical trials for the COVID-19 deliberately did not include people who were pregnant. It’s common practice for clinical trials to exclude those who are pregnant, with concerns about fetal development cited. However, we do know that some vaccine study participants became pregnant and to date there have been no adverse effects reported during pregnancy or related to the health of babies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines studied in people who were pregnant, breastfeeding and trying to conceive have been found to be safe.

I received the Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis) vaccine and Rhogam today. Do I have to wait two weeks to get the COVID vaccine?

Dr. Ladhani: There is no need to wait between vaccines. You can get both vaccines on the same day or within two weeks of each other.

Will the vaccine cause birth defects, miscarriages, or any other fertility or pregnancy complications?

Dr. Ladhani: From the data we have, there is no increased risk for miscarriage, stillbirth or congenital anomalies with the COVID-19 vaccines. I assure patients that there is no evidence that the vaccine can cause birth defects, miscarriages or fertility or pregnancy complications. This is based on the millions who have received the vaccines to date and were trying to conceive or were pregnant.

What happens if I get COVID-19 while pregnant?

Dr. Ladhani: If you begin to feel unwell with symptoms of COVID-19, please contact your obstetrician. Most people who are pregnant will have mild-to-moderate illness if they contract COVID-19. Your obstetrician will provide you with support and resources for managing COVID-19.

High-risk pregnancy & the COVID-19 vaccine

Is the vaccine right for me if I have an autoimmune disorder, asthma and recurrent losses?

Dr. Ladhani: Yes, we would recommend that you get the COVID-19 vaccine. Being pregnant and having asthma are both risk factors for moderate to severe illness with COVID-19. People with autoimmune disorders weren’t included in the vaccine trials, and so the effectiveness and safety profiles aren’t known, but NACI and the Canadian Rheumatology Association are recommending that people with autoimmune disorders are offered the vaccine. Given your risk profile, the vaccine may protect you from the severe forms of COVID-19. It may be worth discussing this more with your health-care practitioner.

I’m having a high risk pregnancy. Should I get the vaccine?

Dr. Ladhani: Yes, in most cases people who are pregnant with high or low-risk pregnancies will benefit from receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and being protected from the disease. Please speak with your high-risk obstetrician about the specific details surrounding your pregnancy to determine if you will benefit from the vaccine.

I’m expecting twins. Is it safe to get the vaccine?

Dr. Ladhani: Yes! You’ll protect yourself and potentially protect both of your babies!

I am pregnant after experiencing a pregnancy loss. Should I get the vaccine?

Dr. Ladhani: A pregnancy loss can be devastating, and it’s understandable you may feel anxious being pregnant again. I would recommend receiving the vaccine for additional peace of mind during your pregnancy, especially as contracting COVID-19 during pregnancy can put you at higher risk of hospitalization and preterm delivery. Please remember there is always support available for pregnancy and infant loss through Sunnybrook’s Pregnancy and Infant Loss (PAIL) Network.

Are there complications with heart arrhythmias?

Dr. Ladhani: COVID-19 can be dangerous for those who have an underlying heart condition. Both of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were tested in people with heart problems and found to be safe and effective.There is no evidence that the vaccine has worse side effects for people with underlying heart conditions, and having COVID-19 is much riskier than getting the vaccine, so we would recommend you get the vaccine.

Breastfeeding & the COVID-19 vaccine

Is the vaccine safe for both me and my baby while breastfeeding?

Dr. Ladhani: The vaccine is safe for your and for the baby. There is new data showing antibodies for COVID-19 in breast milk after vaccination. So you’re not only protecting yourself against COVID-19 with the vaccine, but also possibly passing along some immunity to your little one. A huge win!

Fertility treatments & the COVID-19 vaccine

Is the vaccine safe when undergoing fertility treatment, like IVF?

Dr. Dixon: I suggest speaking with your fertility specialist who knows your history and care plan, and can answer your questions to help you make an informed decision. Undergoing IVF can be a stressful time and your fertility team is a wonderful resource to help guide you. Your specialist may suggest waiting a few days between some treatment procedures (for example, egg collection in IVF) and vaccination, so that any symptoms, such as fever, might be attributed correctly to the vaccine or the treatment procedure. 

Is it safe to get the vaccine if you have a planned intrauterine insemination (IUI) or embryo transfer?

Dr. Dixon: We may consider postponing the start of assisted reproductive treatments – like IUI, ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer after your first or second vaccination. This allows time for the immune response from the COVID-19 vaccine to settle down – this recommendation is purely to help patients cope with potential side effects IF they occur. Please talk to your fertility specialist if you have any concerns about the timing of your vaccine with upcoming fertility treatments.

I did IVF and I’m still in my first trimester. How long should I wait to get the vaccine?

Dr. Dixon: You should take the vaccine as soon as it is made available to you. Please speak with your provider about the specifics of your case. This is consistent with the most recent fertility practice guidelines.

I got pregnant after my second IVF cycle, I’m on my fifth week. Is it safe to receive the vaccine?

Dr. Dixon: It is safe to receive the vaccine in your first trimester. The data from those women who became pregnant immediately after receiving both of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines showed no adverse outcomes in the pregnancy and the vaccines have thus been deemed both safe and effective. Further, there is no evidence that the vaccine can cause birth defects, miscarriages or fertility or pregnancy complications.

Read more: Got your COVID-19 vaccine? What you need to know about infection prevention after getting vaccinated